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What is an endophyte and how does it protect your pasture?

An endophyte is a fungus found naturally in many grass species, including ryegrass. It provides the plant with protection from insects, and in return the plant provides the endophyte with a place to live and reproduce.

DLF Seeds: Leading endophyte experts with over 25 years experience and purpose built cold storage facilities to ensure live endophyte percentages are maintained.

For Endophyte Insect control and animal safety table, download here

AR37 endophyte takes ryegrass pasture persistence and protection to a premium level.

Pests controlled: Argentine Stem Weevil Larvae, Pasture Mealy Bug, Adult Black Beetle and Root Aphid.

Available in: Base, Reason, One50, Vast, #Legion, #Platform and Expo perennial ryegrass and Mohaka hybrid ryegrass.

Suitable for: Beef, sheep and dairy. For important animal health information, see here

To date AR37 has been trialled with sheep and cattle exclusively. Other classes including horses should not consume forage containing AR37 endophyte.

#Platform and Legion have been bred, selected and successfully tested as a perennial and will function as a perennial. ryegrass. Due to small number of tip awns, Platform is certified as Lolium boucheanum. 

AR37 Endophyte

Benefits of ryegrass with AR37 endophyte

  • Provides the best balance of pasture production and persistence
  • Higher tiller density over time
  • Assists with post-drought recovery and improves agronomic performance
  • Provides stronger control of more insect pests compared to ryegrass cultivars containing AR1 or standard endophyte
  • May produce greater carcass weight per hectare compared to ryegrass cultivars containing standard endophyte (SE)
  • Helps to provide a greater return on investment
  • Increased total dry matter production compared to ryegrass cultivars containing AR1 or nil endophyte
  • Has no Ergovaline so may increase milk production compared to endophytes containing high Ergovaline levels
  • Increased sheep performance compared to ryegrass cultivars containing standard endophyte
  • Low incidence of dags in sheep (similar to that of cultivars containing AR1 endophyte)

Limitations of ryegrass with AR37 endophytes

  • AR37 varieties should not be used or fed to any other classes of stock other than sheep, beef and dairy (eg. grazing horses/monogastrics)

Endo5 has good pest control and no known risk of ryegrass staggers

Pests controlled: Black Beetle, Argentine Stem Weevil Larvae, Root Aphid (moderate control) and Pasture Mealy Bug. (Comparatively, AR37 has demonstrated stronger protection from pests and insects).

Available in: Reward perennial ryegrass

Suitable for: Beef, sheep and dairy. For important animal health information, see here

Endo5 endophyte

Benefits of ryegrass with Endo5 endophyte

  • Contains no Lolitrem B, the main cause of ryegrass staggers
  • Produces less Ergovaline for increased milk production compared to endophytes containing high levels of Ergovaline (Standard Endophyte)
  • Increased persistence compared to AR1 endophyte
  • Pest and insect protection better than AR1 Limitations of ryegrass with Endo5 endophyte

Limitations of ryegrass with Endo5 endophyte

  • May produce lower animal performance levels over summer/autumn compared to ryegrass cultivars containing AR1 or nil endophyte

AR1 is a novel endophyte with no known animal health issues

Pests controlled: Argentine Stem Weevil and Pasture Mealy Bug.

Available with: *Platform, *Legion and One50 perennial ryegrass.

Suitable for: Beef, sheep and dairy. For important animal health information, see here

*Due to small number of tip awns, Legion and Platform is certified Lolium boucheanum.

AR1 Endophyte

Benefits of ryegrass with AR1 endophyte

  • Delivers excellent animal performance
  • Provides a moderate range of insect protection
  • Increase in milk production compared to ryegrass cultivars containing standard endophyte (where ryegrass persists)

Limitations of ryegrass with AR1 endophyte

  • Has demonstrated poorer persistence in areas with major insect pest pressure from Black Beetle and Root Aphid
  • AR1 can be overgrazed, resulting in more stress on the plant which may affect long term pasture persistence

MaxP® endophyte is a premium tall fescue protection with no known animal health impacts for beef, sheep and dairy.

Pests controlled: African Black Beetle, Agrentine Stem Weevil, Root Aphid and limited control of Field Cricket

Available in: Quantica, Hummer and Quantum II tall fescue.

Suitable for: Beef, sheep and dairy. For important animal health information, see here

AR37 Endophyte

Benefits of tall fescue with MaxP endophyte

  • An endophyte that improves the ability of tall fescue pastures to handle pest attack and possibly moisture stress.
  • Aids persistence and performance of tall fescue
  • No known adverse animal health effects in beef, sheep and dairy
     

AR37, MaxP, Endo5 and AR1 endophytes

It is important to choose the right endophyte for your operation. Some endophyte strains provide better insect protection but there may also be some impact on animal health. If you need a little extra know how, contact us here.

Standard endophyte (SE)

Limitations of grass with Standard endophyte

  • Contains Lolitrem B, the main cause of ryegrass staggers which can cause significant stock losses in some seasons
  • Milk production may be lower in sheep, weight of lambs may be lower, and adult sheep consistently have lower bodyweight when grazing toxic pastures even when clinical staggers is not apparent
  • Contains high levels of Ergovaline, which causes subclinical heat stress and is linked to other negative animal side effects

Other effects

  • Scours/dags
  • Affects weight gain
  • Milk production
  • Water intake
  • General “ill thrift”
  • Sub clinical heat stress

The Neotyphodium endophytes infecting these grasses are not known to be transferred with pollen or by physical contact (Siegel et al., 1984).

David E. Hume and David J. Barker 2005 GROWTH AND MANAGEMENT OF ENDOPHYTIC GRASSES IN PASTORAL AGRICULTURE. In Neotyphodium in cool-season grasses. Eds. CA Roberts, CP West, DE Spiers 201-226 Iowa, IA: Blackwell Publishing